JOURNAL ARTICLE

Contingent screening for preterm pre-eclampsia

D Wright, D M Gallo, S Gil Pugliese, C Casanova, K H Nicolaides
Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 2016, 47 (5): 554-9
26643929

OBJECTIVE: Effective screening for pre-eclampsia resulting in delivery < 37 weeks' gestation (preterm PE) is provided by assessment of a combination of maternal factors, mean arterial pressure (MAP), uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) and serum placental growth factor (PlGF) at 11-13 or 19-24 weeks' gestation. This study explores the possibility of carrying out routine screening for preterm PE by maternal factors and MAP in all pregnancies and reserving measurements of UtA-PI and PlGF for a subgroup of the population, selected on the basis of the risk derived from screening by maternal factors and MAP alone.

METHODS: Study data were derived from prospective screening for adverse obstetric outcomes in women attending their routine hospital visit at 11-13 and/or 19-24 weeks' gestation. Bayes' theorem was used to derive the a-priori risk for preterm PE from maternal factors and MAP. The posterior risk was obtained by the addition of UtA-PI and PlGF. We estimated the detection rate (DR) of preterm PE, at an overall false-positive rate (FPR) of 10%, from a policy in which first-stage screening by a combination of maternal factors and MAP defines screen-positive, screen-negative and intermediate-risk groups, with the latter undergoing second-stage screening by UtA-PI and PlGF.

RESULTS: At 11-13 weeks' gestation, the model-based DR of preterm PE, at a 10% FPR, when screening the whole population by maternal factors, MAP, UtA-PI and PlGF was 74%. A similar DR was achieved by two-stage screening, with screening by maternal factors and MAP in the first stage and reserving measurement of UtA-PI and PlGF for the second stage and for only 50% of the population. If second-stage screening was offered to 30% of the population, there would be only a small reduction in DR from 74% to 71%. At 19-24 weeks, the model-based DR of preterm PE, at a 10% FPR, when screening the whole population by maternal factors, MAP, UtA-PI and PlGF was 84%. A similar DR was achieved by two-stage screening with measurements of UtA-PI and PlGF in only 70% of the population; if second-stage screening was offered to 40% of the population, the DR would be reduced from 84% to 81%.

CONCLUSIONS: High DR of preterm PE can be achieved by two-stage screening in the first and second trimesters with maternal factors and MAP in the whole population and measurements of UtA-PI and PlGF in only some of the pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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