The High Prevalence of Low HDL-Cholesterol Levels and Dyslipidemia in Rural Populations in Northwestern China

Pengfei Ge, Caixia Dong, Xiaolan Ren, Elisabete Weiderpass, Chouji Zhang, Haoqiang Fan, Jing Zhang, Yongrui Zhang, Jinen Xi
PloS One 2015, 10 (12): e0144104

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is a major health problem in China and an important modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of dyslipidemia and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and associated risk factors among adults in rural northwest China.

METHODS: In a cross-sectional analyses involving 2,980 adults aged >18 years, information on the demographics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and medical history was collected via face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected to determine total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), and HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) levels.

RESULTS: The prevalence of high TC, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, and high TG were 1.0%, 0.6%, 60.9%, and 13.7%, respectively. TC, LDL-cholesterol, and TG increased with age in females. Elevated TC was more common in females than in males. The prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was 67.6% in males and 55.4% in females. Current smokers, those with less education, those who were overweight or obese, and those with large waist circumference were more likely to have low HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). Multivariable regression showed that male gender showed an association with low HDL-cholesterol (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.68-2.61), age ≥60 years (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-0.99), BMI (BMI = 24-27.9, OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.04-1.54, p = 0.02 and BMI≥28, OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.10-2.20, p = 0.01) and enlarged waist circumference (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.51-2.92). Non-alcohol drinker was associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels (OR 0.72, 95%CI 0.53-0.99, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was 67.6% and 55.4% for males and females. Male gender, non-alcohol drinker, BMI and central obesity were important risk factors for low HDL-cholesterol in Chinese adults.

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