OPEN IN READ APP
JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Current and future directions in the treatment and prevention of drug-induced liver injury: a systematic review

Jonathan G Stine, James H Lewis
Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2016, 10 (4): 517-36
26633044
While the pace of discovery of new agents, mechanisms and risk factors involved in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains brisk, advances in the treatment of acute DILI seems slow by comparison. In general, the key to treating suspected DILI is to stop using the drug prior to developing irreversible liver failure. However, predicting when to stop is an inexact science, and commonly used ALT monitoring is an ineffective strategy outside of clinical trials. The only specific antidote for acute DILI remains N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for acetaminophen poisoning, although NAC is proving to be beneficial in some cases of non-acetaminophen DILI in adults. Corticosteroids can be effective for DILI associated with autoimmune or systemic hypersensitivity features. Ursodeoxycholic acid, silymarin and glycyrrhizin have been used to treat DILI for decades, but success remains anecdotal. Bile acid washout regimens using cholestyramine appear to be more evidenced based, in particular for leflunomide toxicity. For drug-induced acute liver failure, the use of liver support systems is still investigational in the United States and emergency liver transplant remains limited by its availability. Primary prevention appears to be the key to avoiding DILI and the need for acute treatment. Pharmacogenomics, including human leukocyte antigen genotyping and the discovery of specific DILI biomarkers offers significant promise for the future. This article describes and summarizes the numerous and diverse treatment and prevention modalities that are currently available to manage DILI.

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
26633044
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"