[Pulmonary hypoplasia: An analysis of cases over a 20-year period]

Yanny Paola Delgado-Peña, Alba Torrent-Vernetta, Gabriela Sacoto, Inés de Mir-Messa, Sandra Rovira-Amigo, Silvia Gartner, Antonio Moreno-Galdó, José Andrés Molino-Gahete, Felíx Castillo-Salinas
Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.) 2016, 85 (2): 70-76

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypoplasia is the most frequent congenital anomaly associated with perinatal mortality.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive review was conducted on cases of patients diagnosed with pulmonary hypoplasia between 1995 and 2014 in a tertiary university hospital. An analysis was made of the prenatal imaging, clinical manifestations, post-natal diagnostic tests, treatment and management, long-term follow up, and survival data.

RESULTS: A total of 60 cases were identified, all of them with prenatal imaging. Sixteen patients required foetal surgery. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia was the most frequent diagnosis. Main clinical presentation was respiratory distress with severe hypoxemia and high requirements of mechanical ventilation. Mortality rate was 47% within first 60 days of life, and 75% for the first day of life. Pneumonia and recurrent bronchitis episodes were observed during follow-up. They had a lung function obstructive pattern, and their quality of life and exercise tolerance was good.

CONCLUSIONS: High neonatal mortality and significant long-term morbidity associated with pulmonary hypoplasia requires an early diagnosis and a specialised multidisciplinary team management.

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