[Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children with type 1 diabetes in 2000-2010 in Podlasie Province]

Agnieszka Polkowska, Barbara Głowińska-Olszewska, Monika Tobiaszewska, Artur Bossowski
Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism 2015, 20 (2): 47-54

INTRODUCTION: There has been an increase over the last decade in the number of young patients with type 1 diabetes treated with a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The accelerated development of atherosclerosis is closely linked to metabolic control and traditional risk factors.

AIM: Analysis of changes in the treatment and clinical picture of type 1 diabetes in children over the years 2000-2010, with emphasis on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 567 children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. 251 children who were treated in 2000 were compared with 316 children treated in 2010. The study analyzed anthropometric parameters, laboratory tests and data obtained using questionnaires.

RESULTS: In 2010, there was an increase in the percentage of children treated with CSU (up to 60.1%) and a decrease in the percentage of children using traditional insulin In favour of insulin analogues. An increase in HbA1c was observed from 7.4% to 8% (p < 0.001) and an increase in the percentage of patients with HbA1c>7.5%. There was an increase in the percentage of children with obesity from 5.2% to 13.7% (p =0.004) and an increase in BMI SDS. The number of children with hypertension was comparable in both groups (17.9% vs 15.8%), as was the percentage of children with dyslipidemią (48.6% ys 513%). Antihypertensive drugs were used in 97.8% vs. 70% of children with hypertension, metformin in 15.4% vs. 14% of children with obesity, and lipid-lowering drugs only in 3.3% vs; 2.5% of patients with dyslipidemia. It has been shown that nowadays children live in families burdened with risk factors for atherosclerosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary patients frequently have excessive body weight and live in families burdened with risk factors for atherosclerosis. Despite the use of modern technology, metabolic control is not satisfactory.

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