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Accelerated hemithoracic radiation followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new protocol of accelerated hemithoracic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) for patients with resectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).

METHODS: A total of 25 Gy of radiation was delivered in 5 daily fractions over 1 week to the entire ipsilateral hemithorax with concomitant boost of 5 Gy to volumes at high risk based on computed tomography and positron emission tomography scan findings. EPP was performed at 6 ± 2 days after the end of radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was offered to patients with ypN2 disease.

RESULTS: A total of 62 patients were included between November 2008 and October 2014. One patient died in the hospital 2 months after EPP, for an operative mortality of 1.6%, and 2 died after discharged from the hospital for an overall treatment-related mortality (grade 5 toxicity) of 4.8%. Twenty-four patients (39%) developed grade 3 to 5 (grade 3+) complications. On final pathology, 94% of the patients were stage III or IV, and 52% had ypN2 disease. The median survival for all patients as an intention-to-treat analysis was 36 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival was 51 and 47 months, respectively, in epithelial subtypes, compared with 10 and 8 months in biphasic subtypes (P = .001). Ipsilateral chest recurrence occurred in 8 patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated hemithoracic IMRT followed by EPP has become our preferred approach for resectable MPM. The results have been encouraging in patients with epithelial subtype.

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