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Vital Signs: Estimated Percentages and Numbers of Adults with Indications for Preexposure Prophylaxis to Prevent HIV Acquisition--United States, 2015.

BACKGROUND: In 2014, approximately 40,000 persons in the United States received a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral antiretroviral medication is a new, highly effective intervention that could reduce the number of new HIV infections.

METHODS: CDC analyzed nationally representative data to estimate the percentages and numbers of persons in the United States, by transmission risk group, with indications for PrEP consistent with the 2014 U.S. Public Health Service's PrEP clinical practice guideline.

RESULTS: Approximately 24.7% of sexually active adult men who have sex with men (MSM) (492,000 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 212,000-772,000]), 18.5% of persons who inject drugs (115,000 [CI = 45,000-185,000]), and 0.4% of heterosexually active adults (624,000 [CI = 404,000-846,000]), had substantial risks for acquiring HIV consistent with PrEP indications.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on current guidelines, many MSM, persons who inject drugs, and heterosexually active adults have indications for PrEP. A higher percentage of MSM and persons who inject drugs have indications for PrEP than heterosexually active adults, consistent with distribution of new HIV diagnoses across these populations.

IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Clinical organizations, health departments, and community-based organizations should raise awareness of PrEP among persons with substantial risk for acquiring HIV infection and their health care providers. These data can be used to inform scale-up and evaluation of PrEP coverage. Increasing delivery of PrEP and other highly effective HIV prevention services could lower the number of new HIV infections occurring in the United States each year.

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