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Does chromophobe renal cell carcinoma have better survival than clear cell renal cell carcinoma? A clinical-based cohort study and meta-analysis

Hui-Ming Jiang, Jin-Huan Wei, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Yong Fang, Bang-Fen Zhou, Zhen-Hua Chen, Jun Lu, Bing Liao, Fang-Jian Zhou, Jun-Hang Luo, Wei Chen
International Urology and Nephrology 2016, 48 (2): 191-9
26589610

BACKGROUND: It is controversial whether chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) or clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is associated with better survival. We conducted a clinical-based cohort study and meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of histology between chRCC and ccRCC.

METHODS: A cohort of 1540 patients (166 with chRCC and 1374 with ccRCC) were selected from Sun Yat-sen University and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. The clinicopathological parameters and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with chRCC and those with ccRCC. For the meta-analysis, we searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Ovid databases for studies comparing OS or cancer-specific survival (CSS) between chRCC and ccRCC.

RESULTS: The cohort study revealed that patients with chRCC were younger (median 52 vs. 55 years, P < 0.001), were more commonly female (47.0 vs. 33.0%, P < 0.001), and had a larger tumor size (mean 7.1 vs. 5.9 cm, P < 0.001), and they had a lower stage compared with those with ccRCC. Five-year OS rates for chRCC and ccRCC were 90.3 and 75.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). We found significantly better survival for chRCC in stratification analysis by age, sex, tumor size, and stage. Similar results were observed on both univariate [hazard ratio (HR), 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.55, P < 0.001] and multivariate analyses (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.79, P = 0.006). Ten studies were included in our meta-analysis. Eight of them provided data on univariate analysis. The pooled HR was statistically significant for OS (pooled HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.30-0.79, P = 0.004) and CSS (pooled HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.37-0.64, P < 0.001). Seven studies reported the HR on multivariate analysis. The pooled HR was also statistically significant for OS (pooled HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.51-0.77, P < 0.001) and CSS (pooled HR 0.72; 95 % CI 0.57-0.90, P = 0.003). These data indicate that patients with chRCC had better outcomes than those with ccRCC.

CONCLUSIONS: Our large cohort study and meta-analysis confirmed that chRCC had better survival than ccRCC.

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