Combining Baseline Distal-to-Aortic Pressure Ratio and Fractional Flow Reserve in the Assessment of Coronary Stenosis Severity

Mauro Echavarría-Pinto, Tim P van de Hoef, Martijn A van Lavieren, Sukhjinder Nijjer, Borja Ibañez, Stuart Pocock, Alicia Quirós, Justin Davies, Martijn Meuwissen, Patrick W Serruys, Carlos Macaya, Jan J Piek, Javier Escaned
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 2015, 8 (13): 1681-91

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to understand the physiological basis of baseline distal-to-aortic pressure ratio (Pd/Pa) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) agreement and discordance, using coronary flow reserve (CFR), stenosis resistance, and microcirculatory resistance measurements, and form there, to investigate the potential value of combining Pd/Pa with FFR in the diagnostic rationale.

BACKGROUND: Pd/Pa is always available before FFR assessment, and emerging data supports the notion that baseline indices can determine the ischemic potential of coronary stenosis in selected subsets.

METHODS: A total of 467 stenosed vessels from 363 patients were investigated with pressure and flow sensors during baseline and hyperemia: 168 vessels (135 patients) with thermodilution-derived flow, and 299 vessels (228 patients) with Doppler-derived flow.

RESULTS: Pd/Pa correlated more strongly with CFR than FFR (ρ difference = 0.129; p for ρ comparison <0.001). Although Pd/Pa and FFR were closely correlated (ρ = 0.798; 95% confidence interval: 0.767 to 0.828), categorical discordance was observed in 19.3% of total vessels. Such discordance was associated with the patients' clinical profile and was characterized by contrastive changes in stenosis resistance, microcirculatory resistance, and the underlying CFR. Notably, all stenosis with Pd/Pa ≤0.83 (n = 74, 15.8%) progressed to FFR ≤0.80, and although no Pd/Pa cutoff was able to exclude the development of FFR ≤0.80 in the high end of values, only 15 (10.1%) vessels with Pd/Pa ≥0.96 (n = 149, 31.9%) developed FFR ≤0.80, from which none had definite ischemia, as defined by CFR ≤1.74.

CONCLUSIONS: Combining baseline Pd/Pa with FFR seems to provide a more comprehensive physiological examination of stenosed coronary arteries and a closer pressure-based appraisal of the flow reserve of the downstream myocardial bed.

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