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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES): a rare condition after resection of posterior fossa tumors: two new cases and review of the literature.

INTRODUCTION: In 1996, Hinchey and colleagues coined the term "Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome" (PRES) to describe a condition seen in patients with acute neurological symptoms and reversible subcortical vasogenic edema predominantly involving parieto-occipital areas demonstrated in brain MRI. The occurrence of this phenomenon after surgical resection of CNS tumors is typically linked to pediatric cases.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two new cases of PRES after posterior fossa surgery are reported. A thorough review of the literature is carried out with the purpose of updating and summarizing the main features regarding PRES in similar cases. Seven cases of PRES after resection of a posterior fossa tumor have been hitherto reported (4 patients were <20 years old). There is another pediatric case described after a ventriculoperitoneal shunting procedure in a patient with fourth ventricle ependymoma. Two resected tumors were ependymomas, 2 hemangiopericytomas in one patient, 1 pilocyticastrocytoma, 1 vestibular schwannoma, and 1 of the reported cases did not describe the final pathology diagnosis.

CASE REPORTS: We present 2 new cases of PRES after surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumor (medulloblastoma in case 1 and ependymoma in case 2) in pediatric patients. Case 1 developed delayed seizures and altered mental status(10 days after surgical resection) after receiving treatment with bromocriptine for cerebellar mutism. Case 2 presented with generalized seizures and altered mental status within the first 48 postoperative hours followed by right hemiparesis. Both patients fully recovered and returned to neurological baseline status. A thorough review of the literature was carried out with the purpose of updating and summarizing the main features regarding PRES in similar cases.

CONCLUSIONS: We report 2 new pediatric cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) that developed after surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumor. Appropriate management includes supportive measures, antihypertensive agents, and antiepileptic drugs, if needed. Full recovery is the most likely outcome in line with previous articles.

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