Cerebral and Peripheral Metabolism to Predict Successful Reperfusion After Cardiac Arrest in Rats: A Microdialysis Study

A Hosmann, A Schober, A Gruber, F Sterz, C Testori, A Warenits, W Weihs, S Högler, T Scherer, A Janata, A Laggner, Markus Zeitlinger
Neurocritical Care 2016, 24 (2): 283-93

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, monitoring of the efficacy of resuscitation can be challenging. The prediction of cerebral and overall outcome in particular is an unmet medical need. Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique for the continuous determination of metabolic parameters in vivo. Using this technique, we set out to establish a model allowing for concomitant determination of cerebral and peripheral metabolism in a cardiac arrest setting in rodents.

METHODS: Microdialysis settings were optimized in vitro and then used in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Probes were implanted into the CA1 region of the right hippocampus and the right femoral vein. With a time interval of 8 min, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate levels were determined during baseline conditions, untreated ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), reperfusion, and death.

RESULTS: In 16 rodents, restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved in seven animals. Characteristic metabolic changes were evident during cardiac arrest and reperfusion with both probes. Ischemic patterns in peripheral compartments were delayed and more variable compared to the changes in cerebral metabolism highlighting the importance of cerebral metabolic monitoring. Microdialysis allowed distinguishing between survivors and non-survivors 8 min after termination of CPR. Cerebral glutamate showed a trend toward higher levels in non-survivors during CPR.

CONCLUSIONS: We established a new rodent model for research in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. This setting allows to investigate the impact of resuscitation methods on cerebral and peripheral metabolism simultaneously. The present model may be used to evaluate different resuscitation strategies in order to optimize brain survival in future studies.

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