Assessment of atrial conduction times in patients with mild diastolic dysfunction and normal atrial size

Ali Hosseinsabet
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology 2015, 15 (11): 925-31

OBJECTIVE: Abnormalities in atrial electromechanical delays (EMDs) are considered independent predictors of atrial fibrillation and can reflect atrial remodeling. The main purpose in this study was to compare inter-left and right intra-atrial EMDs of patients with mild left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, without left atrial (LA) structural remodeling in the absence of high filling pressure, with healthy individuals.

METHODS: In this prospective study, a total of 41 consecutive outpatients who were referred to our echocardiography laboratory with mild diastolic dysfunction (age: 60.9±9.6 years) and 45 healthy control subjects who were referred from an outpatient clinic for check-up (age: 32.2±10.3 years) with normal diastolic function were enrolled into this study. All subjects had normal LA volume and normal right atrial area and did not have high filling pressure. Diastolic dysfunction were determined per American Society of Echocardiography recommendations; so, the following indices were measured: peak early (E) and atrial (A) flow velocities (cm/s), E/A ratio, and deceleration time (DT) (ms) of mitral inflow, systolic (S) and diastolic (D) pulmonary vein wave velocities (cm/s) by pulse wave Doppler, and e' in septal and lateral mitral annulus by pulse wave tissue Doppler. Time interval from the onset of P wave on the ECG to the beginning of the late diastolic wave (Am wave) on tissue Doppler trace, which is named PA, was obtained from the lateral and septal mitral annulus and right ventricular (RV) tricuspid annulus as atrial conduction times (ACTs) and were named lateral PA, septal PA, and RV PA, respectively. The difference between lateral PA and septal, PA septal and RV PA was defined as left and right intra-atrial EMD, respectively. The difference between lateral PA and RV PA was defined as inter-atrial EMD. Data analysis was done by independent student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, Spearman rank order, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multivariate regression analysis in the appropriate site.

RESULTS: A, DT, S/D ratio, and E/e' (average) were significantly lower in the control group, and E, D, E/A ratio, e' septal, and e' lateral wall were significantly lower in the patient group. Atrial conduction times were longer in the patient group, but in the multivariate analysis, there was no correlation between ACTs and diastolic dysfunction. There was no significant difference in left intra-atrial EMD (14.2±9.7 ms vs. 16.4±11.4 ms; p=0.336), right intra-atrial EMD (12.8±12.2 ms vs. 15.4±12.1 ms; p=0.321), and inter-atrial EMD (26.9±13.7 ms vs. 31.7±13.7 ms; p=0.108) between the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed no correlation between inter- and intra-atrial EMDs and diastolic dysfunction.

CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in ACTs and inter-atrial and left and right intra-atrial EMD in patients with mild LV diastolic dysfunction and normal LA volume in the absence high filling pressure compared with normal subjects.

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