Catestatin attenuates endoplasmic reticulum induced cell apoptosis by activation type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion

Feng Liao, Yang Zheng, Junyan Cai, Jinghui Fan, Jing Wang, Jichun Yang, Qinghua Cui, Guoheng Xu, Chaoshu Tang, Bin Geng
Scientific Reports 2015, 5: 16590
Catestatin (CST) is a catecholamine secretion inhibiting peptide as non-competitive inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. CST play a protective role in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Cardiomyocytes endogenously produced CST and its expression was reduced after I/R. CST pretreatment decreased apoptosis especially endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response during I/R. The protection of CST was confirmed in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts under Anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). In contrast, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CST exaggerated ER stress induced apoptosis. The protective effects of CST were blocked by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD90895 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor wortmannin. CST also increased ERK1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and which was blocked by atropine and selective type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine (M2) receptor, but not type 1 muscarinic acetylcholine (M1) receptor antagonist. Receptor binding assay revealed that CST competitively bound to the M2 receptor with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 25.7 nM. Accordingly, CST inhibited cellular cAMP stimulated by isoproterenol or forskolin, and which was blocked by selective M2 receptor antagonist. Our findings revealed that CST binds to M2 receptor, then activates ERK1/2 and PI3 K/Akt pathway to inhibit ER stress-induced cell apoptosis resulting in attenuation cardiac I/R injury.

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