R loops regulate promoter-proximal chromatin architecture and cellular differentiation

Poshen B Chen, Hsiuyi V Chen, Diwash Acharya, Oliver J Rando, Thomas G Fazzio
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 2015, 22 (12): 999-1007
Numerous chromatin-remodeling factors are regulated by interactions with RNA, although the contexts and functions of RNA binding are poorly understood. Here we show that R loops, RNA-DNA hybrids consisting of nascent transcripts hybridized to template DNA, modulate the binding of two key chromatin-regulatory complexes, Tip60-p400 and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Like PRC2, the Tip60-p400 histone acetyltransferase complex binds to nascent transcripts; however, transcription promotes chromatin binding of Tip60-p400 but not PRC2. Interestingly, we observed higher Tip60-p400 and lower PRC2 levels at genes marked by promoter-proximal R loops. Furthermore, disruption of R loops broadly decreased Tip60-p400 occupancy and increased PRC2 occupancy genome wide. In agreement with these alterations, ESCs partially depleted of R loops exhibited impaired differentiation. These results show that R loops act both positively and negatively in modulating the recruitment of key pluripotency regulators.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"