Protection of testis through antioxidant action of Mallotus roxburghianus in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model

Vikas Kumar Roy, Lalramdinthara Chenkual, Guruswami Gurusubramanian
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2015 December 24, 176: 268-80

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mallotus roxburghianus is used for its antihyperglycaemic properties in Southeast Asia especially in Northeast India (Mizoram) and is also recognized in traditional medicine. About 90% of diabetic patients have been associated with reproductive impairments. The primary aim of this investigation is to examine the effects of diabetes on oxidative stress, steroidogenesis, histopathology, proliferation of germ cells with proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and antioxidant status, and alleviative effect of M. roxburghianus on the testis dysfunction.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus was given to male albino Wistar rats by oral gavage to study the acute toxicity. Phyto-chemical composition of the methanol extract of M. roxburghianus was analyzed by GC-MS. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups with seven animals in each group: untreated control; M. roxburghianus methanolic extract control (MRME, 400mg/kg); Alloxan diabetic control group (150 mg/kg); diabetic with 100mg/kg MRME treatment; diabetic with 400mg/kg MRME treatment; and diabetic with glibenclamide (0.1mg/kg) treatment. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan and was confirmed by testing fasting plasma blood glucose levels 5 days after injection. MRME was administered orally for 28 days. Body and testis weights, serum testosterone, testis malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S transferase (GST) and protein levels were measured, and testis tissue was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically (PCNA).

RESULTS: No sign of mortality and organ toxicity was observed up to 3000 mg/kg in acute toxicity assay of MRME and inferred to be non-toxic and safe. Bergenin and betulinic acid are the major components of MRME with many biological activities. MRME treatment rendered significant increases in body weight, testis weight, testes-body weight ratio, down regulated the MDA levels, reduced the degeneration and disruption of seminiferous tubule structure, restored the antioxidant enzymes and serum testosterone levels, increased the PCNA activities and attenuated the testes injury.

CONCLUSION: MRME treatment to diabetic rats improves diabetes induced oxidative damage in testis as well as provides protection to testis. Phenols (Bergenin) and terpenes (Betulinic acid) were the main compounds of MRME that show antioxidant and antidiabetic activities and indeed validated its traditional use in the management of diabetes related testicular impairment.

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