JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Nephrolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis in Children - Metabolic and Genetic Factors

Velibor Tasic, Zoran Gucev
Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER 2015, 13 (1): 468-76
26540764
Diagnosis and management of pediatric nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis is a very complex and challenging task for every pediatrician. It is based on correct. disease history taking, which may guide to the mode of inheritance (dominant, recessive, x-linked). Ethnicity and consanguinity should also be investigated since they predispose to high prevalence of certain disorders. One should always begin with cheap and available screening tests. Herein we will review clinical, biochemical, metabolic and genetic characteristics of the inherited diseases which lead to nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis, such as: idiopathic hypercalciuria, renal hypophosphatemia, renal tubular acidosis, idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, hypocitraturia, cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria and renal hypouricemia. Modern genetic techniques such as next generation sequencing enable nowadays diagnosis of rare disease using only a blood sample, trough massive parallel resequencing of many genes. This is very helpful for anuric patients or on dialysis where blood and urine biochemistry are not informative. Genetic testing also replaces invasive liver biopsy or unpleasant acidification tests and enables prenatal or early postnatal diagnosis.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
26540764
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"