Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Risk of Acute Pancreatitis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Yun-Ju Lai, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Hsin-Hua Chen, Pesus Chou
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015, 94 (43): e1906
To investigate the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes.This nationwide population-based cohort study used the diabetes patients dataset of Taiwan's National Health Research Insurance Research Database. Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 and no history of acute pancreatitis were selected. This cohort was followed from the index date to the onset of acute pancreatitis or December 31, 2011. The main outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR) for acute pancreatitis associated with DPP-4 inhibitor use. Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were adjusted for alcohol use, hypertriglyceridemia, cholelithiasis, neoplasm, and Diabetes Complications Severity Index (DCSI) score. Subgroup analyses stratified by age and sex were conducted.The study cohort comprised 114,141 patients. Significant interaction effects were observed between sex and age (HR 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.99) and age and DCSI score (HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.97). In subgroup analyses, significant risks of acute pancreatitis were noted in female and elderly DPP-4 inhibitor users. Among women, the risk of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher among DPP-4 inhibitor users than among nonusers (HR 2.27, 95% CI: 1.30-3.97). This risk was also significantly higher in users than in nonusers among patients aged >65 years (HR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.11-5.15).Female and elderly DPP-4 inhibitor users had significantly elevated risks of acute pancreatitis development. Further well-conducted studies are needed to confirm our findings.

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