Small (< 4 cm) Renal Mass: Differentiation of Oncocytoma From Renal Cell Carcinoma on Biphasic Contrast-Enhanced CT

Kohei Sasaguri, Naoki Takahashi, Daniel Gomez-Cardona, Shuai Leng, Grant D Schmit, Rickey E Carter, Bradley C Leibovich, Akira Kawashima
AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology 2015, 205 (5): 999-1007

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether small (< 4 cm) oncocytomas can be differentiated from renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) on biphasic contrast-enhanced CT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with 53 oncocytomas and 123 patients with 128 RCCs (24 papillary subtype and 104 clear cell and other subtypes) who underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT were included in the study. Patient demographics and CT tumor characteristics were evaluated in each case. A multinomial logistic regression model was then constructed for differentiating oncocytoma from clear cell and other subtype RCCs, oncocytoma from papillary RCCs, and clear cell and other subtype RCCs from papillary RCCs. The probability of each group was calculated from the model. Diagnostic performance among three pairwise diagnoses and between oncocytoma and any RCC (clear cell and other subtypes and papillary) were assessed by AUC values.

RESULTS: Patient age, tumor CT attenuation values and skewness (i.e., histogram analysis of CT values) in both the corticomedullary and nephrographic phases, and subjective tumor heterogeneity were statistically significant variables in the multinomial logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression model using the variables yielded AUCs of 0.82, 0.95, 0.91, and 0.84 for differentiating oncocytomas from clear cell and other subtype RCCs, oncocytomas from papillary RCCs, clear cell and other subtype RCCs from papillary RCCs, and oncocytomas from any RCC (clear cell and other subtypes and papillary), respectively.

CONCLUSION: A combination of imaging features on biphasic CT, including tumor CT attenuation values and tumor texture (heterogeneity and skewness), can help differentiate oncocytoma from RCC.

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