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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Recurrent Bleeding, Survival, and Longitudinal Pulmonary Function following Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis in a U.S. Adult Population

Lisa M Tom, Harold I Palevsky, Douglas S Holsclaw, Scott O Trerotola, Mandeep Dagli, Jeffrey I Mondschein, S William Stavropoulos, Michael C Soulen, Timothy W I Clark
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR 2015, 26 (12): 1806-13.e1
26481824

PURPOSE: To report outcomes of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for hemoptysis, including recurrent bleeding, survival, and longitudinal pulmonary function.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective database identified 69 patients who underwent 97 BAE procedures (n = 1-7 per patient) at a tertiary academic medical center over a period of 11 years. Technical and clinical success were determined. Recurrent bleeding and survival were compared by etiology of lung disease. Rates of change in pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]) were measured and compared before and after index BAE by linear regression in 17 patients.

RESULTS: The technical success rate of BAE was 90%. Clinical success rates at 24 hours and 30 days were 82% and 68%, respectively. Thirty percent of patients had recurrent bleeding that required bronchoscopy (7%) or additional embolization (23%). Median time to recurrent bleeding was 29 days among the 13 patients with sarcoidosis, compared with 293 days among patients without sarcoidosis (P = .0013). The hazard ratio for death in patients with sarcoidosis compared with those without sarcoidosis was 4 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-14.6). Analyzing all instances of pulmonary function tests, slopes of decline in FEV1 and FVC were significantly different (FEV1, P = .0048; FVC, P < .0001) before and after index BAE, with an improvement after BAE (FEV1, 0.8%/y; FVC, 1%/y) and a decrease before BAE (FEV1, -1.6%/y; FVC, -1.4%/y).

CONCLUSIONS: BAE is an effective therapy for hemoptysis, but patients with sarcoidosis are at significant risk of recurrent bleeding and death compared with patients with other lung diseases. BAE does not accelerate deterioration in lung function.

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