The effects of vitamin D plus calcium supplementation on metabolic profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia

M Samimi, M Kashi, F Foroozanfard, M Karamali, F Bahmani, Z Asemi, Y Hamidian, H R Talari, A Esmaillzadeh
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association 2016, 29 (4): 505-15

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to examine the effects of vitamin D plus calcium administration on metabolic profiles and pregnancy outcomes among women at risk for pre-eclampsia.

METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 women at risk for pre-eclampsia were randomised to take either 50 000 IU vitamin D3 every 2 weeks plus 1000 mg day(-1) calcium supplements (as calcium carbonate) (n = 30) or to receive placebos at the same times (n = 30) from 20 to 32 weeks of gestation. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention to determine related variables. Newborn anthropometric measurements were determined.

RESULTS: Taking combined cholecalciferol and calcium supplements, compared to placebo, led to significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) [mean (SD)] [-5.7 (5.5) versus -0.6 (12.6) mg dL(-1) , P = 0.04], serum insulin concentrations [-2.8 (6.0) versus +7.7 (9.8) μIU mL(-1) , P < 0.001], homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance [-0.8 (1.3) versus +1.6 (2.2), P < 0.001], homeostatic model assessment-beta cell function [-8.2 (25.8) versus +32.6 (41.3, P < 0.001] and a significant rise in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index score [+0.02 (0.02) versus -0.02 (0.02, P < 0.001]. Additionally, pregnant women who received cholecalciferol plus calcium supplements had increased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol [+4.6 (8.3) versus -2.9 (7.7) mg dL(-1) , P = 0.001] and plasma total glutathione (GSH) concentrations [+23.4 (124.0) versus -94.8 (130.2) μm, P = 0.001] compared to placebo. However, after adjustment for the baseline levels, maternal age and baseline body mass index, the effects on FPG levels (P = 0.13) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.13) disappeared.

CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D plus calcium administration for 12 weeks had beneficial effects on glycaemic status, HDL-cholesterol, GSH and blood pressure among women at risk for pre-eclampsia.

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