Lethal hypophosphatasia successfully treated with enzyme replacement from day 1 after birth

Yoko Okazaki, Hiroyuki Kitajima, Narutaka Mochizuki, Taichi Kitaoka, Toshimi Michigami, Keiichi Ozono
European Journal of Pediatrics 2016, 175 (3): 433-7

UNLABELLED: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare metabolic bone disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene ALPL encoding the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). There is a broad range of severity in the phenotype of HPP, and the most severe form exhibits perinatal lethality without mineralization of the skeleton. Here, we describe a female infant with perinatal lethal HPP diagnosed in utero. She was treated with a recombinant ALP (asfotase alfa) as an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which started from 1 day after birth. She required invasive ventilation immediately upon birth and demonstrated severe hypomineralization of whole body bone. Severe respiratory insufficiency was controlled by intensive respiratory care with high-frequency oscillation ventilation and nitric oxide inhalation and deep sedation just after birth. Bone mineralization improved with treatment; improvements were visible by 3 weeks of age and continued with treatment. Serum calcium levels decreased following treatment, resulting in hypocalcemia and convulsion, and calcium supplementation was required until 3 months of treatment. She was weaned from mechanical ventilation and has now survived more than 1 year.

CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the success of ERT in treating the severest HPP and highlights the importance of early diagnosis and intervention for these patients.

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