Ethyl acetate fraction of Aframomum melegueta fruit ameliorates pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and major diabetes-related parameters in a type 2 diabetes model of rats

Aminu Mohammed, Neil Anthony Koorbanally, Md Shahidul Islam
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2015 December 4, 175: 518-27

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In West Africa, various preparations of the fruit, seed and leaf of Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. are reputably used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and other metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of A. melegueta ethyl acetate fraction (AMEF) from fruit ethanolic extract in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: T2D was induced in rats by feeding a 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight) and the animals were orally treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the AMEF once daily for four weeks.

RESULTS: At the end of the intervention, diabetic untreated animals showed significantly higher serum glucose, serum fructosamine, LDH, CK-MB, serum lipids, liver glycogen, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), AI, CRI and lower serum insulin, pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA- β) and glucose tolerance ability compared to the normal animals. Histopathological examination of their pancreas revealed corresponding pathological changes in the islets and β-cells. These alterations were reverted to near-normal after the treatment of AMEF at 150 and 300 mg/kg bw when, the effects were more pronounced at 300 mg/kg bw compared to the 150 mg/kg bw.

CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that AMEF treatment at 300 mg/kg bw showed potent anti-diabetic effect in a T2D model of rats.

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