Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Angiogenic factor imbalance early in pregnancy predicts adverse outcomes in patients with lupus and antiphospholipid antibodies: results of the PROMISSE study.

BACKGROUND: Over 20% of pregnancies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) result in an adverse pregnancy outcome (APO) related to abnormal placentation. The ability to identify, early in pregnancy, patients who are destined for poor outcomes would significantly impact care of this high-risk population. In nonautoimmune patients, circulating angiogenic factors are dysregulated in disorders of placentation, such as preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether early dysregulation of circulating angiogenic factors can predict APO in high-risk SLE and/or APL pregnancies.

STUDY DESIGN: We used data and samples from the Predictors of Pregnancy Outcome: Biomarkers in APL Syndrome and SLE (PROMISSE), a multicenter prospective study that enrolled 492 pregnant women with SLE and/or APL from September 2003 through August 2013. Patients were followed through pregnancy from <12 weeks gestation. Circulating levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble endoglin were measured monthly and subjects followed up for APO, classified as severe (PE <34 weeks, fetal/neonatal death, indicated preterm delivery <30 weeks) or moderate (PE ≥34 weeks, indicated preterm delivery 30-36 weeks, growth restriction without PE).

RESULTS: Severe APOs occurred in 12% and moderate APOs in 10% of patients. By 12-15 weeks, sFlt1, PlGF, and soluble endoglin levels were markedly altered in women who developed severe APO. After adjusting for clinical risk factors, sFlt1 was the strongest predictor of severe APO among 12-15 week measures (odds ratio, 17.3 comparing highest and lowest quartiles; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-84.8; positive predictive value [PPV], 61%; negative predictive value [NPV], 93%). At 16-19 weeks, the combination of sFlt1 and PlGF was most predictive of severe APO, with risk greatest for subjects with both PlGF in lowest quartile (<70.3 pg/mL) and sFlt1 in highest quartile (>1872 pg/mL; odds ratio, 31.1; 95% CI, 8.0-121.9; PPV, 58%; NPV, 95%). Severe APO rate in this high-risk subgroup was 94% (95% CI, 70-99.8%), if lupus anticoagulant or history of high blood pressure was additionally present. In contrast, among patients with both sFlt1 <1872 pg/mL and PlGF >70.3 pg/mL, rate of severe APO was only 4.6% (95% CI, 2.1-8.6%).

CONCLUSION: Circulating angiogenic factors measured during early gestation have a high NPV in ruling out the development of severe adverse outcomes among patients with SLE and/or APL syndrome. Timely risk stratification of patients is important for effective clinical care and optimal allocation of health care resources.

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