JOURNAL ARTICLE

Direct Induction of Trophoblast Stem Cells from Murine Fibroblasts

Caroline Kubaczka, Claire E Senner, Monika Cierlitza, Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo, Peter Kuckenberg, Michael Peitz, Myriam Hemberger, Hubert Schorle
Cell Stem Cell 2015 November 5, 17 (5): 557-68
26412560
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) arise from the first cell fate decision in the developing embryo and generate extra-embryonic lineages, giving rise to the fetal portion of the placenta. Mouse embryonic and extra-embryonic lineages are strictly separated by a distinct epigenetic barrier, which is not fully overcome following expression of TSC-determining factors in embryonic stem cells. Here, we show that transient expression of Tfap2c, Gata3, Eomes, and Ets2 is sufficient to reprogram mouse embryonic fibroblasts and post-natal tail-tip-derived fibroblasts into induced TSCs (iTSCs) and surmount the epigenetic barrier separating somatic from extra-embryonic lineages. iTSCs share nearly identical morphological characteristics, gene expression profiles, and DNA methylation patterns with blastocyst-derived TSCs. Furthermore, iTSCs display transgene-independent self-renewal, differentiate along extra-embryonic lineages, and chimerize host placentas following blastocyst injection. These findings provide insights into the transcription factor networks governing TSC identity and opportunities for studying the epigenetic barriers underlying embryonic and extra-embryonic lineage segregation.

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