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Patterns of uveitis at the Apex Institute for Eye Care in India: Results from a prospectively enrolled patient data base (2011-2013)

Pradeep Venkatesh, Varun Gogia, Bhavin Shah, Shikha Gupta, Pradeep Sagar, Satpal Garg
International Ophthalmology 2016, 36 (3): 365-72
The purpose of the study was to identify the clinical and etiological profile of uveitis at the apex institute for eye care in India. This is a prospective, prevalence study. 980 consecutive patients with uveitis referred to uvea clinic, Dr. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences (Ophthalmology division, All India Institute of Medical Sciences). Demographic data of each patient were noted and a thorough ocular examination including slit lamp examination and dilated fundus evaluation was carried out. OCT and fluorescein angiography were undertaken whenever indicated. Uveitis was classified based on the anatomic location of inflammation (IUSG classification). Relevant serological and radiological investigations were obtained based on systemic symptomatology, and if the uveitis was recurrent (even in the absence of systemic symptoms). The presence of a systemic disease was confirmed by obtaining an internist consultation. The main outcome measures include pattern of uveitis according to anatomical classification and the etiology. Out of 980 patients with uveitis, 413 (42.14 %) patients had anterior uveitis, 131 (13.36 %) had intermediate uveitis, 165 (16.83 %) had posterior uveitis, 91 (9.2 %) had panuveitis, 47 (4.7 %) had retinal vasculitis, 22 (2.24 %) had scleritis, 17 (1.7 %) had masquerade syndromes, 8 (0.8 %) had keratouveitis, 22 (2.24 %) had sclerokeratouveitis, 19 (1.9 %) had endophthalmitis and 45 (4.5 %) had other causes of inflammation including trauma and intraocular surgery. Out of all uveitic patients definite etiological correlation could be made out in 225 (23 %) patients; thus 77 % were categorised as idiopathic. Only 9 % of all patients were found to have uveitis with an infectious etiology. Amongst infectious causes of uveitis tuberculosis was the leading cause, accounting for sixty percent of all infectious uveitis (approximately 5 % of overall uveitis). Non-infectious uveitis etiology accounted for more than 90 % of all cases with ankylosing spondylitis being the most common followed by sarcoidosis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Amongst known uveitic syndromes serpiginous like choroidopathy was the most common and was followed by acute posterior placoid pigmented epitheliopathy and Fuch's heterochromic iridocyclitis. Infection, including tuberculosis, is an infrequent cause of uveitis in the study population. Multicentric, collaborative efforts are required to improve levels of clinical evidence and evolve consensus in establishing stringent guidelines for labelling uveitis as being of infectious etiology.

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