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Etiology and Outcome of Crescentic Glomerulonephritis From a Single Center in China: A 10-Year Review.

BACKGROUND: The disease spectrum of crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) has been described in only a few previous studies, and detailed epidemiologic data from China are unavailable to date.

STUDY DESIGN: Case series.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 528 patients with biopsy-proven crescentic GN in 2003 to 2013 from a single center.

PREDICTOR: Crescentic GN was classified into 3 types according to immunofluorescence findings: type I was defined as linear deposition of immunoglobulins along the glomerular basement membrane; type II, as glomerular deposition of immune complex; and type III, as pauci-immune deposition.

OUTCOMES: Demographic, clinical, and serologic characteristics.

RESULTS: Of 528 cases identified, 208 (39.4%) were men, with a mean age of 37.6±16.4 (SD) years at kidney biopsy. 61 (11.6%) patients had type I crescentic GN, 331 (62.7%) had type II (lupus nephritis, 34.3%; immunoglobulin A [IgA] nephropathy, 17.4%), and 136 (25.8%) had type III. Proportions of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), acute kidney diseases and disorders without AKI, and chronic kidney disease were 86.9%, 0%, and 13.1% for type I; 42.0%, 19.6%, and 38.4% for type II; and 84.6%, 2.9%, and 12.5% for type III crescentic GN, respectively. Serum antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were detected in 11 (18.0%) patients with type I, 15 (4.5%) with type II, and 117 (86.0%) with type III. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies were found in 60 (98.4%) patients with type I, 3 (0.9%) with type II, and 5 (3.7%) with type III. 5-year cumulative renal survival rates for patients with types I, II, and III were 17.6%, 70.1%, and 44.3%, respectively.

LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study, single-center experience.

CONCLUSIONS: Lupus nephritis may be the most common type of crescentic GN in China, followed by pauci-immune crescentic GN and IgA nephropathy. Almost half the patients presented with AKI, whereas 28.8% of cases showed chronic kidney disease. Clinical manifestations and outcomes varied according to crescentic GN type. The distinction between subtypes based on immunofluorescence and serologic findings has important implications for therapy and outcome.

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