Safety and immunogenicity of different doses and schedules of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) in healthy adults: A Phase 1b randomized study

Richard Rupp, Gary Joseph Luckasen, Judith Lee Kirstein, Jorge E Osorio, Joseph D Santangelo, Marsha Raanan, Mary Kathryn Smith, Derek Wallace, Gilad S Gordon, Dan T Stinchcomb
Vaccine 2015 November 17, 33 (46): 6351-9

INTRODUCTION: A safe, effective dengue vaccine that can simultaneously induce immunity to all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-4) is a public health priority. A chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) based on an attenuated DENV-2 serotype backbone was evaluated in healthy, flavivirus-seronegative adults.

METHODS: In this randomized, multicenter, Phase 1b study conducted in the United States, the safety and immunogenicity of TDV were evaluated in 140 participants aged 18-45 years in six dosing regimen study groups. Participants were injected subcutaneously on Days 0 and 90; placebo (saline) was injected where appropriate to maintain double blinding. Three different TDV dosages (TDV, a vaccine in which TDV-4 had been increased three-fold, and a one-tenth TDV dose), and single or double dosing were evaluated in one and/or both arms. Primary endpoints were solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) and seroconversion rates to DENV-1-4 at Day 120.

RESULTS: The severity of all AEs was generally mild. The most common unsolicited AEs were headache (52%), fatigue (43%) and myalgia (29%). The incidence of injection site pain ranged from 29 to 64% and 5 to 52% among study groups after the first and second doses, respectively. At Day 120, the ranges of seroconversion rates among the groups were DEN-1: 84-100%; DEN-2: 96-100%; DEN-3: 83-100%; and DEN-4: 33-77%. More than 80% of participants in each group seroconverted to at least three dengue serotypes. Substantial GMT increases from baseline were observed for DEN-1-3 at all time points from Day 30 onward; DEN-4 GMT increases were lower. Increasing TDV-4 slightly increased DEN-4 GMT, did not impact DEN-2 and DEN-3 GMT, but reduced DEN-1 GMT. Neither multiple dosing in both arms, nor one-tenth TDV dosing meaningfully impacted GMT increases relative to TDV.

CONCLUSIONS: All TDV doses and dosing schedules were well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy flavivirus-naive adults ( NCT01511250).

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