Characterization of the Drug Resistance Profiles of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239

Said A Hassounah, Yannan Liu, Peter K Quashie, Maureen Oliveira, Daniela Moisi, Bluma G Brenner, Paul A Sandstrom, Thibault Mesplède, Mark A Wainberg
Journal of Virology 2015, 89 (23): 12002-13

UNLABELLED: We previously showed that the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 is susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and that the same IN drug resistance mutations result in similar phenotypes in both viruses. Now we wished to determine whether tissue culture drug selection studies with SIV would yield the same resistance mutations as in HIV. Tissue culture selection experiments were performed using rhesus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with SIVmac239 viruses in the presence of increasing concentrations of dolutegravir (DTG), elvitegravir (EVG), and raltegravir (RAL). We now show that 22 weeks of selection pressure with DTG yielded a mutation at position R263K in SIV, similar to what has been observed in HIV, and that selections with EVG led to emergence of the E92Q substitution, which is a primary INSTI resistance mutation in HIV associated with EVG treatment failure. To study this at a biochemical level, purified recombinant SIVmac239 wild-type (WT) and E92Q, T97A, G118R, Y143R, Q148R, N155H, R263K, E92Q T97A, E92Q Y143R, R263K H51Y, and G140S Q148R recombinant substitution-containing IN enzymes were produced, and each of the characteristics strand transfer, 3'-processing activity, and INSTI inhibitory constants was assessed in cell-free assays. The results show that the G118R and G140S Q148R substitutions decreased Km' and Vmax'/Km' for strand transfer compared to those of the WT. RAL and EVG showed reduced activity against both viruses and against enzymes containing Q148R, E92Q Y143R, and G140S Q148R. Both viruses and enzymes containing Q148R and G140S Q148R showed moderate levels of resistance against DTG. This study further confirms that the same mutations associated with drug resistance in HIV display similar profiles in SIV.

IMPORTANCE: Our goal was to definitively establish whether HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) share similar resistance pathways under tissue culture drug selection pressure with integrase strand transfer inhibitors and to test the effect of HIV-1 integrase resistance-associated mutations on SIV integrase catalytic activity and resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Clinically relevant HIV integrase resistance-associated mutations were selected in SIV in our tissue culture experiments. Not only do we report on the characterization of SIV recombinant integrase enzyme catalytic activities, we also provide the first research anywhere on the effect of mutations within recombinant integrase SIV enzymes on drug resistance.

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