Medical management of chronic kidney disease in the renal transplant recipient

Song Ching Ong, Robert S Gaston
Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 2015, 24 (6): 587-93

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An updated overview of the state-of-the-art approaches to the care of chronic kidney disease-related issues in renal transplant recipients.

RECENT FINDINGS: These include the impact of immunosuppression therapy on kidney function, the management of cardiovascular risk, metabolic bone disease, and hematologic complications, with a focus on the care of the patient with a failing allograft.

SUMMARY: A kidney transplant improves patient morbidity and mortality, but almost all transplant patients continue to have morbidity related to chronic kidney disease. It is increasingly clear that the provision of adequate immunosuppression is important to preserve allograft function. Recent studies have lent support to current guidelines for the management of cardiovascular risk factors in transplant patients. New data regarding the management of metabolic bone disease are sparse. Erythropoietin replacement may improve outcomes in transplant recipients, but the optimal target hemoglobin level is not known. Cessation of immunosuppression in the failed allograft carries the risk of rejection and allosensitization. New evidence suggests that nephrectomy may reduce mortality in patients with a failed allograft, but likely enhances sensitization in the patient awaiting retransplantation.

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