Tallman lettering, capitalizing the dissimilar portions of easily confused drug names, is one strategy for reducing medication errors. We assessed the efficacy of Tallman lettering in a visually complex environment using a change detection method with healthcare providers and laypeople. In addition, the effect of familiarity with the drug name was assessed using a subset of responses collected from healthcare providers. Both healthcare providers and laypeople detected changes in confusable pairs of drug names more often (P < 0.0001) and more quickly (P < 0.05) when changes were presented in Tallman lettering, though the benefits were more pronounced for healthcare providers (p < 0.05). Familiarity with both drug names in a confusable pair mitigated the benefit of Tallman lettering. Results are discussed in terms of bottom-up and top-down attentional systems for processing of information in the context of the varied healthcare environments.
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