Clinical and Economic Implications of Apixaban Versus Aspirin in the Low-Risk Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients

Gregory Y H Lip, Tereza Lanitis, Jack Mardekian, Thitima Kongnakorn, Hemant Phatak, Paul Dorian
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation 2015, 46 (10): 2830-7

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although recommended by guidelines, the benefits of treating patients with atrial fibrillation with a low-stroke risk score, with aspirin or anticoagulants, have not been clearly established. With advent of safer non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant, we assessed the clinical and economic implications of 5 mg BID of apixaban versus aspirin among patients with a relative low risk of stroke as assessed using the CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age>75, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack) and CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease) stroke risk classification.

METHODS: A previously developed and validated Markov model was adapted. A secondary analysis of the Apixaban Versus Acetylsalicylic Acid to Prevent Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Who Have Failed or Are Unsuitable for Vitamin K Antagonist Treatment (AVERROES) study was conducted to estimate event rates in different low-risk cohorts by treatment. Three cohorts (n=1000) with a CHADS2 score of 1, CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1, and CHA2DS2-VASc of score 2 to 4 were simulated to assess the number of clinical events avoided in terms of strokes and major bleeds, as well as life years gained, quality-adjusted life years gained, costs, and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year gained.

RESULTS: Apixaban was associated with fewer strokes and systemic embolism versus aspirin across all subgroups; however, it caused more major bleeding events. The reduction in systemic embolism offset the increase in major bleeding events leading to increased life expectancy and quality-adjusted life year gains, achieved at an increased cost that was lower than the UK threshold of $44,400 (ie, £30,000) per quality-adjusted life year gained across the 3 cohorts examined.

CONCLUSIONS: Anticoagulant treatment with apixaban versus aspirin in low-risk patients, as identified using CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc, is projected to increase life expectancy and provide clinical benefits that are cost effective.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"