Volume-Based Assessment With 18F-FDG PET/CT Improves Outcome Prediction for Patients With Stage IIIA-N2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Seung Hyup Hyun, Hee Kyung Ahn, Myung-Ju Ahn, Yong Chan Ahn, Jhingook Kim, Young Mog Shim, Joon Young Choi
AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology 2015, 205 (3): 623-8

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prognostic impact of volume-based assessment by pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients who had clinical stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgical resection.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 161 consecutive patients who had stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC treated with neoadjuvant CCRT followed by surgery. In all cases, N2 disease was pathologically confirmed by mediastinoscopic biopsy, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. We measured the total metabolic tumor volume (total MTV) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), including a primary tumor and metastatic nodes on the pretreatment scan. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The association of PET parameters with OS and DFS was determined by univariable and multivariable analyses performed using the Cox regression model.

RESULTS: A higher total MTV was significantly associated with poor DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.82; p = 0.036) and OS (HR = 2.97; p = 0.012) in the multivariable analysis. In contrast, a higher SUVmax was not significantly associated with poor DFS and OS. Patients with a high total MTV (> 22 cm(3)) had a median survival time that was significantly shorter than that of patients with a low total MTV (median DFS, 11.3 vs 42.0 months, respectively [p < 0.001]; median OS, 38.3 months vs not reached [p < 0.001]). Kaplan-Meier curves showed significant differences on the basis of total MTV in patients with or without mediastinal downstaging after CCRT. Patients with a high total MTV had significantly worse DFS when they had post-neoadjuvant pathologic (yp) stage 0-II disease (p = 0.020) or yp stage III disease (p = 0.036). Higher total MTV was also associated with worse OS in patients with yp stage 0-II disease (p = 0.013) or yp stage III disease (p = 0.007).

CONCLUSION: A higher pretreatment total MTV is associated with worse outcome, independent of yp stage, in patients with stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC treated with neoadjuvant CCRT followed by surgery.

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