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Laparoscopic pyloroplasty is a safe and effective first-line surgical therapy for refractory gastroparesis

Amber L Shada, Christy M Dunst, Radu Pescarus, Emily A Speer, Maria Cassera, Kevin M Reavis, Lee L Swanstrom
Surgical Endoscopy 2016, 30 (4): 1326-32

INTRODUCTION: Surgical options for symptomatic delayed gastric emptying include gastric stimulator implantation, subtotal gastrectomy, and pyloroplasty. Pyloroplasty has been shown to improve gastric emptying yet is seldom described as a primary treatment for gastroparesis. We present a single-institution experience of laparoscopic Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty (LP) as treatment for gastroparesis.

METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A prospective foregut surgery database was queried for LP over a 5-year period. Charts were reviewed for indications, complications, symptom score, and outcomes. Gastroparesis was defined by (1) abnormal gastric emptying study, (2) endoscopic visualization of retained food after prolonged NPO status, or (3) clinical symptoms suspicious of vagal nerve injury following complex re-operative foregut surgery. Results were analyzed using a paired T test and single-factor ANOVA.

RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-seven LP patients were identified and reviewed. One hundred and five had a concurrent fundoplication for objective reflux. There were no intraoperative complications or conversions to laparotomy. Overall morbidity rate was 6.8% with four return to OR and two confirmed leaks (1.1% leak rate). Average length of stay was 3.5 days, and readmission rate was 7%. Eighty-six percent had improvement in GES with normalization in 77%. Gastric emptying half-time decreased from 175 ± 94 to 91 ± 45 min. Nineteen patients (10.7%) had subsequent surgical interventions: gastric stimulator implantation (12), feeding jejunostomy and/or gastrostomy tube (6), or subtotal gastrectomy (4). Symptom severity scores for nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain, and early satiety decreased significantly at 3 months.

CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic pyloroplasty improves or normalizes gastric emptying in nearly 90% of gastroparesis patients with very low morbidity. It significantly improves symptoms of nausea, vomiting, bloating, and abdominal pain. Some patients may go on to another surgical treatment for GP, but it remains a safe and less invasive alternative to a subtotal gastrectomy in these clinically challenging patients.

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