The detection of significant prostate cancer is correlated with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) in MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy

Hannes Cash, Andreas Maxeiner, Carsten Stephan, Thomas Fischer, Tahir Durmus, Josephine Holzmann, Patrick Asbach, Matthias Haas, Stefan Hinz, Jörg Neymeyer, Kurt Miller, Karsten Günzel, Carsten Kempkensteffen
World Journal of Urology 2016, 34 (4): 525-32

PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of real-time MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided targeted biopsy (TB) in men with primary and repeat biopsies and correlate the prostate cancer detection rate (CDR) with the PI-RADS score.

METHODS: Analysis included 408 consecutive men with primary and prior negative biopsies who underwent TB and 10-core random biopsy (RB) between January 2012 and January 2015. TB was performed with a real-time MRI/US fusion platform with sensor-based registration. Clinically significant PCa was defined as Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7 or GS 6 with maximal cancer core length ≥ 4 mm for TB and according to Epstein criteria for RB.

RESULTS: The overall CDR was 56 % (227/408). The CDR for primary biopsy was 74 % (60/81) and 57 % (67/117), 49 % (62/126), 45 % (38/84) for patients with 1, 2 and ≥ 3 prior negative biopsies. CDRs correlated with PI-RADS 2/3/4/5 were 16 % (5/32), 26 % (29/113), 62 % (94/152) and 89 % (99/111), respectively. The rates of significant tumors in relation to PI-RADS 2/3/4/5 were 60 % (3/5), 66 % (19/29), 74 % (70/94), 95 % (94/99). In 139 (61 %) cases with radical prostatectomy (RP), the rates of ≥ pT3 tumors in correlation with PI-RADS 4 and 5 were 20 % (11/56) and 49 % (32/65). PI-RADS constituted the strongest predictor of significant PCa detection (p < 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS: Real-time MRI/US fusion-guided TB combined with RB improved PCa detection in patients with primary and repeat biopsies. The CDR was strongly correlated with a rising PI-RADS score, values of 4 and 5 increasing the detection of clinically significant tumors and leading to a higher histological stage after RP.

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