Generation of Naïve Bovine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using PiggyBac Transposition of Doxycycline-Inducible Transcription Factors

Takamasa Kawaguchi, Tomoyuki Tsukiyama, Koji Kimura, Shuichi Matsuyama, Naojiro Minami, Masayasu Yamada, Hiroshi Imai
PloS One 2015, 10 (8): e0135403
Generation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in large domestic animals has achieved only limited success; most of the PSCs obtained to date have been classified as primed PSCs, which possess very little capacity to produce chimeric offspring. By contrast, mouse PSCs have been classified as naïve PSCs that can contribute to most of the tissues of chimeras, including germ cells. Here, we describe the generation of two different types of bovine induced pluripotent stem cells (biPSCs) from amnion cells, achieved through introduction of piggyBac vectors containing doxycycline-inducible transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc). One type of biPSCs, cultured in medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement (KSR), FGF2, and bovine leukemia inhibitory factor (bLIF), had a flattened morphology like human PSCs; these were classified as primed-type. The other type biPSCs, cultured in KSR, bLIF, Mek/Erk inhibitor, GSK3 inhibitor and forskolin, had a compact morphology like mouse PSCs; these were classified as naïve-type. Cells could easily be switched between these two types of biPSCs by changing the culture conditions. Both types of biPSCs had strong alkaline phosphatase activity, expressed pluripotent markers (OCT3/4, NANOG, REX1, ESRRβ, STELLA, and SOCS3), and formed embryoid bodies that gave rise to differentiated cells from all three embryonic germ layers. However, only naïve-type biPSCs showed the hallmarks of naïve mouse PSCs, such as LIF-dependent proliferation, lack of FGF5 expression, and active XIST expression with two active X chromosomes. Furthermore, naïve-type biPSCs could contribute to the inner cell mass (ICM) of host blastocysts and most tissues within chimeric embryos. This is the first report of generation of biPSCs with several characteristics similar to those of naïve mouse PSCs and a demonstrated potential to contribute to chimeras.

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