Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition (CPPD) disease is a common etiology of crystalline arthropathy; however, it can manifest in multiple patterns such as acute calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystal arthritis, osteoarthritis with CPPD, and chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis. Tumoral or tophaceous-like CPPD is a rare manifestation that is occasionally mistaken for gouty tophus or a soft tissue malignancy. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a new imaging modality currently utilized in assessing monosodium urate crystal deposition; however, its value in CPPD is uncertain. We describe a case using DECT to diagnose tumoral CPPD mimicking tophaceous gout versus recurrence of a previous synovial sarcoma. The imaging findings on DECT prevented unnecessary surgery to assess for possible malignancy, allowing for the prompt diagnosis of tumoral CPPD. Further studies should be performed to determine the role of DECT in assessing for crystalline deposition disease other than gout.
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