JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Testicular torsion and the acute scrotum: current emergency management

Anthony Ta, Frank T D'Arcy, Nathan Hoag, John P D'Arcy, Nathan Lawrentschuk
European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine 2016, 23 (3): 160-5
26267075
The acute scrotum is a challenging condition for the treating emergency physician requiring consideration of a number of possible diagnoses including testicular torsion. Prompt recognition of torsion and exclusion of other causes may lead to organ salvage, avoiding the devastating functional and psychological issues of testicular loss and minimizing unnecessary exploratory surgeries. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the latest management strategies for the acute scrotum, discusses key points in diagnosis and management and evaluates the strengths and drawbacks of history and clinical examination from an emergency perspective. It outlines the types and mechanisms of testicular torsion, and examines the current and possible future roles of labwork and radiological imaging in diagnosis. Emergency departments should be wary of younger males presenting with the acute scrotum.

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