JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Ketamine for rapid reduction of suicidal ideation: a randomized controlled trial

J W Murrough, L Soleimani, K E DeWilde, K A Collins, K A Lapidus, B M Iacoviello, M Lener, M Kautz, J Kim, J B Stern, R B Price, A M Perez, J W Brallier, G J Rodriguez, W K Goodman, D V Iosifescu, D S Charney
Psychological Medicine 2015, 45 (16): 3571-80
26266877

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a devastating public health problem and very few biological treatments have been found to be effective for quickly reducing the intensity of suicidal ideation (SI). We have previously shown that a single dose of ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is associated with a rapid reduction in depressive symptom severity and SI in patients with treatment-resistant depression.

METHOD: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of ketamine in patients with mood and anxiety spectrum disorders who presented with clinically significant SI (n = 24). Patients received a single infusion of ketamine or midazolam (as an active placebo) in addition to standard of care. SI measured using the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSI) 24 h post-treatment represented the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale--Suicidal Ideation (MADRS-SI) score at 24 h and additional measures beyond the 24-h time-point.

RESULTS: The intervention was well tolerated and no dropouts occurred during the primary 7-day assessment period. BSI score was not different between the treatment groups at 24 h (p = 0.32); however, a significant difference emerged at 48 h (p = 0.047). MADRS-SI score was lower in the ketamine group compared to midazolam group at 24 h (p = 0.05). The treatment effect was no longer significant at the end of the 7-day assessment period.

CONCLUSIONS: The current findings provide initial support for the safety and tolerability of ketamine as an intervention for SI in patients who are at elevated risk for suicidal behavior. Larger, well-powered studies are warranted.

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