Anti-inflammatory effects of vina-ginsenoside R2 and majonoside R2 isolated from Panax vietnamensis and their metabolites in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

Jin-Ju Jeong, Thi Hong Van Le, Sang-Yun Lee, Su-Hyeon Eun, Minh Duc Nguyen, Jeong Hill Park, Dong-Hyun Kim
International Immunopharmacology 2015, 28 (1): 700-6
Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv., with its main constituents vina-ginsenoside R2 (VR2) and majonoside R2 (MR2), is used in traditional folk medicine in the hill tribes of Vietnam for anti-fatigue, anti-inflammatory, and life-saving purposes. In a preliminary study, VR2 and MR2 were shown to be metabolized to pseudoginsenoside RT4 (PRT4) and ocotillol by human gut microbiota. Therefore, we measured the anti-inflammatory effects of VR2, MR2, and their metabolites in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Among these ginsenosides, only VR2 exhibited cytotoxicity against peritoneal macrophages. MR2, PRT4, and ocotillol inhibited LPS-stimulated transcription factor (NF)-κB activation, and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1. However, these ginsenosides did not inhibit peptidoglycan-induced NF-κB activation in the macrophages. These three ginsenosides also inhibited LPS-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase expression, and phosphorylation of NF-κB signal molecules IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 and tumor growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 in peritoneal macrophages. Treatment with either PRT4 or ocotillol inhibited the Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated LPS-mediated shift of macrophages, as observed by flow cytometry. They also potently inhibited the binding of LPS to TLR4 on peritoneal macrophages, both with and without transfected MyD88 siRNA. Among the tested ginsenosides, ocotillol exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on inflammation in LPS-stimulated macrophages via the NF-κB signaling pathway. Based on these findings, orally administered VR2 and MR2 of P. vietnamensis may be metabolized to ocotillol via PRT4, and the metabolites, particularly ocotillol, may inhibit inflammation by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 on macrophages.

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