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Early Differentiation of Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome and Toxic Shock Syndrome in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) can present as shock and fever with skin rash, but the management of these 2 groups of patients is different. This report proposes to help clinicians earlier distinguish these 2 diseases and expedite institution of appropriate therapy.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with the diagnosis of KDSS or TSS from January 2000 through December 2010. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were collected for analysis of differences between them.

RESULTS: Seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria of KDSS and 16 had a confirmed diagnosis of TSS. The mean age of the KDSS group was significantly younger than that of the TSS group (36.8 ± 41.1 vs. 113.3 ± 55.6 months, P < 0.001). Significantly lower hemoglobulin and age-adjusted hemoglobulin concentrations were noted in the KDSS group [Hb, age-adjusted Z score, -1.88 (range, -3.9 to 3.9) vs. 0.89 (range, -6.4 to 10.8), P = 0.006]. The median platelet count of the KDSS group was nearly twice that of the TSS group [312 × 10³ per μL (range, 116-518) vs. 184.5 × 10³ per μL (range: 31-629), P = 0.021]. Echocardiographic abnormalities, such as valvulitis (mitral or tricuspid regurgitation) and coronary artery lesions, were significantly more common in the KDSS group (P = 0.022).

CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiography, anemia and thrombocytosis are useful early differentiating features between KDSS and TSS patients.

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