Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Proposal for a Monitoring Protocol

Fabio Santanelli di Pompeo, Rosaria Laporta, Michail Sorotos, Arianna Di Napoli, Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli, Maria Cristina Cox, Antonella Campanale, Benedetto Longo
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2015, 136 (2): 144e-151e

BACKGROUND: The authors report four cases of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) from a single institution and propose a multidisciplinary protocol.

METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, four breast implant-associated ALCL cases were diagnosed. The authors performed the original operation, and no patients were referred to their practice. Cases 1, 2, and 4 were CD4/CD30/ALK ALCL with previous textured-implant reconstruction, whereas case 3 was CD8/CD30/ALK ALCL with previous polyurethane-implant augmentation. A retrospective study of all patients who underwent breast implant positioning was performed to identify any misdiagnosed cases.

RESULTS: Of 483 patients, 226 underwent reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis, 115 had skin-sparing/nipple-sparing mastectomy and prosthesis, 117 underwent an expander/implant procedure, and 25 underwent breast augmentation. Fifty-eight cases (12 percent) underwent implant replacement for capsular contracture, 15 (3.1 percent) experienced late-onset seroma, and four (0.83 percent) had both capsular contracture and seroma. Seventy-seven symptomatic patients (16 percent) underwent surgical revision (capsulectomy/capsulotomy) and/or seroma evacuation. The second look on histologic specimens did not identify misdiagnosed cases. A multidisciplinary protocol for suspected implant-associated ALCL was established. Ultrasound and cytologic examinations are performed in case of periprosthetic effusion. If implant-associated ALCL is diagnosed, implant removal with capsulectomy is performed. If disseminated disease is detected through positron emission tomography/computed tomography of the total body, the patient is referred to the oncology department.

CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary protocol is mandatory for both early diagnosis and patient management. Until definitive data emerge regarding the exact etiopathogenesis of breast implant-associated ALCL, the authors suggest offering only autologous reconstruction if patients desire it.


Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"