The receptor for advanced glycation end products in ventilator-induced lung injury

Maria T Kuipers, Hamid Aslami, Pieter Roel Tuinman, Anita M Tuip-de Boer, Geartsje Jongsma, Koenraad F van der Sluijs, Goda Choi, Esther K Wolthuis, Joris Jth Roelofs, Paul Bresser, Marcus J Schultz, Tom van der Poll, Catharina W Wieland
Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2014, 2 (1): 22

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The innate immune response mediates this iatrogenic inflammatory condition. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that can amplify immune and inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that RAGE signaling contributes to the pro-inflammatory state induced by MV.

METHODS: RAGE expression was analyzed in lung brush and lavage cells obtained from ventilated patients and lung tissue of ventilated mice. Healthy wild-type (WT) and RAGE knockout (KO) mice were ventilated with relatively low (approximately 7.5 ml/kg) or high (approximately 15 ml/kg) tidal volume. Positive end-expiratory pressure was set at 2 cm H2O during both MV strategies. Also, WT and RAGE KO mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury were ventilated with the above described ventilation strategies. In separate experiments, the contribution of soluble RAGE, a RAGE isoform that may function as a decoy receptor, in ventilated RAGE KO mice was investigated. Lung wet-to-dry ratio, cell and neutrophil influx, cytokine and chemokine concentrations, total protein levels, soluble RAGE, and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) presence in lung lavage fluid were analyzed.

RESULTS: MV was associated with increased RAGE mRNA levels in both human lung brush samples and lung tissue of healthy mice. In healthy high tidal volume-ventilated mice, RAGE deficiency limited inflammatory cell influx. Other VILI parameters were not affected. In our second set of experiments where we compared RAGE KO and WT mice in a 2-hit model, we observed higher pulmonary cytokine and chemokine levels in RAGE KO mice undergoing LPS/high tidal volume MV as compared to WT mice. Third, in WT mice undergoing the LPS/high tidal volume MV, we observed HMGB1 presence in lung lavage fluid. Moreover, MV increased levels of soluble RAGE in lung lavage fluid, with the highest levels found in LPS/high tidal volume-ventilated mice. Administration of soluble RAGE to LPS/high tidal volume-ventilated RAGE KO mice attenuated the production of inflammatory mediators.

CONCLUSIONS: RAGE was not a crucial contributor to the pro-inflammatory state induced by MV. However, the presence of sRAGE limited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in our 2-hit model of LPS and high tidal volume MV.

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