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The type of feto-placental aneuploidy detected by cfDNA testing may influence the choice of confirmatory diagnostic procedure

Francesca Romana Grati, Komal Bajaj, Francesca Malvestiti, Cristina Agrati, Beatrice Grimi, Barbara Malvestiti, Eva Pompilii, Federico Maggi, Susan Gross, Giuseppe Simoni, Jose Carlos P Ferreira
Prenatal Diagnosis 2015, 35 (10): 994-8

OBJECTIVES: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening can provide false positive/negative results because the fetal fraction originates primarily from trophoblast. Consequently, invasive diagnostic testing is recommended to confirm a high-risk result. Currently, there is debate about the most appropriate invasive method. We sought to estimate the frequency in which a chorionic villus sampling (CVS) performed after a high-risk cfDNA result would require a follow-up amniocentesis due to placental mosaicism.

METHODS: Analyses of the frequencies of the different types of mosaicism involving cytotrophoblasts, for trisomies 21 (T21), 18 (T18), 13 (T13) and monosomy X (MX) among 52,673 CVS karyotypes obtained from cytotrophoblast, mesenchyme and confirmatory amniocentesis.

RESULTS: After a high-risk cfDNA result for T21, 18, 13 and MX, the likelihood of finding CVS mosaicism and need for amniocentesis is, respectively, 2%, 4%, 22% and 59%. When mosaicism is detected by CVS, the likelihood of fetal confirmation by amniocentesis is, respectively, 44%, 14%, 4% and 26%.

CONCLUSIONS: In cases of high-risk cfDNA results for T21/T18, CVS (combining cytotrophoblast and mesenchyme analysis) can be considered, but with the caveat of 2-4% risk of an inconclusive result requiring further testing. In high-risk results for MX/T13, amniocentesis would appear to be the most appropriate follow-up diagnostic test, especially in the absence of sonographic findings.

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