Palonosetron in combination with 1-day versus 3-day dexamethasone for prevention of nausea and vomiting following paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with gynecologic cancers: A randomized, multicenter, phase-II trial

Motoki Matsuura, Seiro Satohisa, Mizue Teramoto, Ryoichi Tanaka, Masahiro Iwasaki, Akira Nishikawa, Masahiro Mizunuma, Satoshi Tanaka, Osamu Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi Saito
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 2015, 41 (10): 1607-13

AIM: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can affect a patient's quality of life, leading to poor compliance with further treatments. Previous studies have provided minimal data about carboplatin-based regimens. Female sex is a known risk factor for CINV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate palonosetron plus single-dose dexamethasone (DEX) for preventing CINV caused by carboplatin plus paclitaxel combination therapy (TC regimen) in patients with gynecologic cancers.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were recruited for this phase-II, multicenter, randomized trial from 12 hospitals in Hokkaido, Japan. Eligible patients were women with uterine cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer scheduled to receive conventional TC regimen or dose-dense TC regimen; 116 patients were randomly assigned to receive palonosetron in combination with 1-day DEX or 3-day DEX.

RESULTS: During the overall period, complete response (CR) was observed in 67.9% (95% confidence interval, 53.7-80.1) of patients in the 3-day DEX arm, and 60.7% (95% confidence interval, 46.8-73.5) of patients in the 1-day DEX arm; CR was significantly lower in the 1-day DEX arm if motion sickness was already present (Pā€‰=ā€‰0.0370). In the severe hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, CR in the 1-day DEX arm tended to be lower than in the 3-day DEX arm.

CONCLUSION: Combination therapy of palonosetron and 1-day DEX was effective for subjects undergoing a TC regimen for gynecologic cancers. However, the possibility of reduced efficacy of 1-day only DEX therapy in women undergoing a TC regimen could not be refuted and requires further investigation.

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