Effects of oral temazepam on sleep spindles during non-rapid eye movement sleep: A high-density EEG investigation

D T Plante, M R Goldstein, J D Cook, R Smith, B A Riedner, M E Rumble, L Jelenchick, A Roth, G Tononi, R M Benca, M J Peterson
European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2015, 25 (10): 1600-10
Benzodiazepines are commonly used medications that alter sleep spindles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, however the topographic changes to these functionally significant waveforms have yet to be fully elucidated. This study utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to investigate topographic changes in sleep spindles and spindle-range activity caused by temazepam during NREM sleep in 18 healthy adults. After an accommodation night, sleep for all participants was recorded on two separate nights after taking either placebo or oral temazepam 15 mg. Sleep was monitored using 256-channel hdEEG. Spectral analysis and spindle waveform detection of sleep EEG data were performed for each participant night. Global and topographic data were subsequently compared between temazepam and placebo conditions. Temazepam was associated with significant increases in spectral power from 10.33 to 13.83 Hz. Within this frequency band, temazepam broadly increased sleep spindle duration, and topographically increased spindle amplitude and density in frontal and central-posterior regions, respectively. Higher frequency sleep spindles demonstrated increased spindle amplitude and a paradoxical decrease in spindle density in frontal and centroparietal regions. Further analysis demonstrated temazepam both slowed the average frequency of spindle waveforms and increased the relative proportion of spindles at peak frequencies in frontal and centroparietal regions. These findings suggest that benzodiazepines have diverse effects on sleep spindles that vary by frequency and cortical topography. Further research that explores the relationships between topographic and frequency-dependent changes in pharmacologically-induced sleep spindles and the functional effects of these waveforms is indicated.

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