Prosthesis-Specific Predictors of Paravalvular Regurgitation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Impact of Calcification and Sizing on Balloon-Expandable versus Self-Expandable Transcatheter Heart Valves

Barbara E Stähli, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen-Kim, Cathérine Gebhard, Ladina Erhart, Thomas Frauenfelder, Felix C Tanner, Volkmar Falk, Ulf Landmesser, Fabian Nietlispach, Thomas F Lüscher, Willibald Maier, Ronald K Binder
Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2015, 24 (1): 10-21

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aim was to investigate prosthesis-specific predictors for paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PAR) in self-expandable versus balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves (THVs). PAR is frequently observed after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). As self-expandable and balloon-expandable THVs engage differently with the native aortic valve structures, factors that impact PAR may differ between the prosthesis types.

METHODS: A total of 137 TAVR patients who underwent pre-procedural multidetector computed tomography and post-procedural transthoracic echocardiography were studied. Predictors for PAR, including annulus area oversizing and aortic valve calcification mass and volume, were analyzed in a multivariate model.

RESULTS: The Medtronic CoreValve (MCV) prosthesis was utilized in 68 patients (50%), and the Edwards SAPIEN (ES) prosthesis in 69 (50%). More than mild PAR was observed in 43 patients (32%). Among MCV patients, aortic valve calcification volume and mass were higher in those with more than mild PAR than in those with none or mild PAR (p = 0.04, p = 0.03, respectively). Among ES patients, the annulus area and perimeter oversizing were lower in those with more than mild PAR compared to those with no or mild PAR (p = 0.001). By univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, aortic valve calcification mass was the only independent predictor for PAR in MCV patients (p = 0.02), whereas in ES patients it was THV undersizing (p = 0.002), irrespective of the calcific burden.

CONCLUSION: For self-expandable THVs, aortic valve calcification mass was the strongest predictor of PAR, whereas for balloon-expandable THVs it was prosthesis undersizing. Hence, in patients evaluated for TAVR these parameters should guide the selection of prosthesis type.

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