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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Causes of Thickening of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Alcoholic Liver Disease: A Prospective Observational Study

Bao-Ge Qu, Hui Wang, Yuan-Xun Liu, Yi-Guo Jia, Ji-Liang Su, Zhong-Dong Wang, Ya-Fei Wang, Xing-Hai Han, Jin-Dun Pan, Guang-Ying
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015, 94 (28): e1087
26181540
Several studies have reported the relationship between alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Few studies, however, have investigated the causes of CIMT thickening in patients with ALD. The authors explored the causes of CIMT thickening in patients with ALD. The authors enrolled 152 patients who were stratified into groups: nonthickening CIMT with ALD (group A); thickening CIMT with ALD (group B); nonthickening CIMT without ALD (group C); and thickening CIMT without ALD (group D). The CIMT was significantly different between patients with and without ALD (χ 2= 3.875, P = 0.049). The patients in groups A, B, and C were significantly younger than group D (P = 0.001, 0.036, and 0.001, respectively). The body mass indexes (BMI) in groups A and B were significantly higher than in group C (P = 0.000 and 0.007, respectively). The blood glucose levels in groups B and D were significantly higher than in group C (P = 0.016 and 0.018, respectively). The blood uric acid levels in group B were significantly higher than in groups A, C, and D (P = 0.009, 0.000, and 0.003, respectively). The blood uric acid in group A was significantly higher than in group C (P = 0.002). The serum total cholesterol (TC) levels of patients in group B were significantly higher than in groups A and C (P = 0.027 and 0.000, respectively) and the serum TC level in group A was significantly higher than in group C (P = 0.048). The serum triglyceride (TG) levels in groups A and B were significantly higher than in group C (P = 0.027 and 0.000, respectively). The serum of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels in group B were significantly higher than in group C (P = 0.000). Although a comparison of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) serum levels among the 4 groups indicated no changes. The serum LDL levels in group B were significantly higher than in group A (P = 0.008). No significant differences were observed among the groups with respect to serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), soluble OX40 ligand (sOX40L), or heat shock protein (HSP) 60 or 70. Alcoholic liver disease may result in CIMT thickening. Carotid intima-media thickness is associated with age and metabolic factors in patients with ALD. In addition, ALD might promote the premature occurrence of CIMT thickening. The thickening of carotid artery intima thickness, however, is not associated with cytokine profiles, oxidative balance, or immune responses in patients with ALD.

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