The Human Autoantibody Response to Apolipoprotein A-I Is Focused on the C-Terminal Helix: A New Rationale for Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease?

Sabrina Pagano, Hubert Gaertner, Fabrice Cerini, Tiphaine Mannic, Nathalie Satta, Priscila Camillo Teixeira, Paul Cutler, François Mach, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Oliver Hartley
PloS One 2015, 10 (7): e0132780

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and new approaches for both diagnosis and treatment are required. Autoantibodies directed against apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) represent promising biomarkers for use in risk stratification of CVD and may also play a direct role in pathogenesis.

METHODOLOGY: To characterize the anti-ApoA-I autoantibody response, we measured the immunoreactivity to engineered peptides corresponding to the different alpha-helical regions of ApoA-I, using plasma from acute chest pain cohort patients known to be positive for anti-ApoA-I autoantibodies.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results indicate that the anti-ApoA-I autoantibody response is strongly biased towards the C-terminal alpha-helix of the protein, with an optimized mimetic peptide corresponding to this part of the protein recapitulating the diagnostic accuracy for an acute ischemic coronary etiology (non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina) obtainable using intact endogenous ApoA-I in immunoassay. Furthermore, the optimized mimetic peptide strongly inhibits the pathology-associated capacity of anti-ApoA-I antibodies to elicit proinflammatory cytokine release from cultured human macrophages.

CONCLUSIONS: In addition to providing a rationale for the development of new approaches for the diagnosis and therapy of CVD, our observations may contribute to the elucidation of how anti-ApoA-I autoantibodies are elicited in individuals without autoimmune disease.

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