Analysis of outcome of avascular necrosis of femoral head treated by core decompression and bone grafting

Smit N Shah, Chirag S Kapoor, Maulik R Jhaveri, Paresh P Golwala, Sagar Patel
Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma 2015, 6 (3): 160-6

BACKGROUND: Femoral head is the most common bone affected by avascular necrosis. Core decompression procedure, when done in the initial stages, before collapse, may arrest or reverse the progress of avascular necrosis and thereby may preserve the normal femoral head. Hence, we have analysed the clinical, functional and radiological outcome of core decompression and bone grafting in patients with Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) upto stage IIB (Ficat & Arlet).

MATERIALS AND METHOD: A study was undertaken at our institute from June 2010 to June 2013 wherein 20 patients (28 hips) of ONFH upto grade II B (Ficat & Arlet) were treated with core decompression and the outcomes were studied. Patients were subjected to core decompression of the affected hip. All the patients were operated in lateral position. In 26/28 hips, cancellous grafting was done after harvesting graft from the posterior iliac crest. In 2 patients cortical non-vascularised fibular graft was used.

RESULTS: Functional outcome was assessed by Harris hip score, wherein 19 hips (67.85%) had good or excellent outcome; 1 hip (3.57%) had fair out come. However, 8 hips (28.57%) showed poor result. For stage I, 12/13 hips (92.3%) improved, whereas for Stage IIA, 6/11 hips (54.54%) showed improvement and for stage IIB, only 2/4 hips (50%) showed improvement. Less than 25% of the hips required a replacement or salvage procedure. Strict non weight bearing was complied by 23 hips (82.14%), whereas 5 hips (17.85%) were not compliant. If we exclude non compliant patients, our success rate was 92.3% for grade I, 100% for grade IIA and 50% for grade IIB.

CONCLUSION: Core decompression and bone grafting provide satisfactory outcome when patients are carefully selected in early stages of the disease, before the stage of collapse.

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