Outpatient Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients With Myeloma

Thomas M Paul, Stephen V Liu, Elise A Chong, Selina M Luger, David L Porter, Stephen J Schuster, Donald E Tsai, Sunita D Nasta, Alison Loren, Noelle Frey, Alexander Perl, Adam D Cohen, Brendan M Weiss, Edward A Stadtmauer, Dan T Vogl
Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia 2015, 15 (9): 536-40

BACKGROUND: High-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell support improves survival for patients with myeloma. For selected patients, we have been using a protocol of short hospitalization, discharging patients to home with careful outpatient monitoring in the office, which we hypothesized would reduce complications and utilization of inpatient beds.

METHODS: We reviewed 301 initial autologous transplants for myeloma, categorized as brief stay (≤ 4 days, 82 patients) or prolonged stay (≥ 5 days, 219 patients). Selection for a brief stay was determined by clinical characteristics, availability of caregivers at home, distance from our medical center, and patient preference.

RESULTS: Within the brief stay population, 67% required readmission before day + 100, but this group still had fewer cumulative hospital days (9 vs. 18, P < .0001). There were fewer documented infections among brief stay patients (22% vs. 46% P < .001) and fewer admissions to intensive care units (0% vs. 5.9%, P = .02). The groups had similar rates of bleeding (1.2% vs. 1.4% P = 1.0) and thrombosis (3.7% vs. 4.6% P = 1.0). No patients in the brief stay group died within 100 days, compared with mortality of 1.8% (P = .6) in the prolonged stay group.

CONCLUSION: Carefully selected patients receiving an autologous stem cell transplant for treatment of myeloma can be managed with a brief initial hospitalization and outpatient follow-up, with low morbidity and mortality.

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